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NGC 281: Living the High Life
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Name:  NGC 281
Description:  Nebula & Star Cluster
Position (J2000):  RA 00h 52m 59.35s   Dec +56° 37' 18.8"
Constellation:  Cassiopeia
Observation Date:  3 pointings from 11/10/05-11/12/05
Observation Time:  27 hours 30 min.
Color Code:  X-ray (Purple); Infrared (Red, Green, Blue)
Instrument:  ACIS
Distance Estimate:  About 9,200 light years
Scale:  Image is about 18 arcmin across (about 48 light years)
Image Credit:  NASA/CXC/JPL/CfA/S.Wolk
Release Date:  September 28, 2011

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This composite image of NGC 281 contains X-ray data from Chandra (purple) with infrared observations from Spitzer (red, green, blue). The high-mass stars in NGC 281 drive many aspects of their galactic environment through powerful winds flowing from their surfaces and intense radiation that heats surrounding gas, "boiling it away" into interstellar space. This process results in the formation of large columns of gas and dust, as seen on the left side of the image. These structures likely contain newly forming stars. The eventual deaths of massive stars as supernovas will also seed the galaxy with material and energy.

High-mass stars are important because they are responsible for much of the energy pumped into our galaxy over its lifetime. High-mass stars are those that contain 8 times the Sun's mass or more. Unfortunately, these stars are poorly understood because they are often found relatively far away and can be obscured by gas and dust. The star cluster NGC 281 is an exception to this rule. It is located about 9,200 light years from Earth and, remarkably, almost 1,000 light years above the plane of the Galaxy, giving astronomers a nearly unfettered view of the star formation within it.

NGC 281 is known informally as the "Pacman Nebula" because of its appearance in optical images. In optical images the "mouth" of the Pacman character appears dark because of obscuration by dust and gas, but in the infrared Spitzer image the dust in this region glows brightly.